High BP decreasing that have extra dosage out-of potassium from the variety of 1900 to help you 4700 mg/d (49–122 mmol/d) might have been said to result in BP decline in whenever dos so you can 6 mm hg to own diastolic BP and two to four mm hg to possess systolic BP. the higher variability between efficiency reflects new variability seen in various other degree. on the other hand, the effect away from potassium towards BP are dependent on pretreatment BP level; age; race; sex; comorbid requirements; consumption out of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or any other ions; diet; exercise; weight; sort of potassium used; concomitant medications; and you may time of use. a listing of this new results of the many meta-analyses with the ramifications of potassium with the BP thus far are offered into the Shape step three.
Report on meta-analyses out-of knowledge investigating new blood pressure levels-minimizing effects of potassium. 25–twenty-eight SBP suggests systolic blood circulation pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure levels.
Even if contradictory show regarding your effects of potassium supplementation with the BP was reported inside clinical studies, 34, thirty five new trials have showed results in line with that the meta-data because of the Whelton and you can colleagues twenty-six (Table II). Gu and you may coworkers thirty-six learned that modest potassium supplementation (sixty mmol KCl) taken to own several days triggered a decrease in systolic BP, yet not diastolic BP, in the an effective Chinese inhabitants. Furthermore, Kawano and colleagues 37 documented that a good 4-day potassium supplementation period (when 64 mmol/d Hookup-Seiten of potassium was given given that slow-launch KCl) resulted in quick but high reductions for the work environment, house, and you will 24-hours BP within the Japanese men. Braschi and associates 38 after that checked out the effect from reduced-dosage potassium supplements toward BP and discovered that twenty four mmol/d away from slow-discharge KCl applied having 6 months lead to tall decreases for the indicate arterial stress and you will diastolic BP from inside the match volunteers.
Elements by which Potassium Reduces BP
The fresh homeostasis off salt and you may potassium plays an important role inside the endothelium-depending vasodilatation. 39 Sodium preservation reduces the synthesis out-of nitric oxide, an enthusiastic arteriolar vasodilator elaborated because of the endothelial tissue, and you can advances the plasma quantity of asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, an enthusiastic endogenous substance of nitric oxide development. 40 a diet full of potassium and develops within the solution potassium, also in physiological variety, trigger endothelium-established vasodilatation from the hyperpolarizing brand new endothelial telephone as a consequence of arousal of the sodium push and you will beginning potassium avenues. 41 At exactly the same time, other recommended systems which potassium can dictate BP become natriuresis, modulation out of baroreceptor awareness, reduced vasoconstrictive susceptibility to norepinephrine and you can angiotensin II, improved gel and you may urinary kallikrein, enhanced sodium/potassium At the Pase interest, modification from inside the DNA synthesis, and you may proliferation in vascular effortless muscle and you can sympathetic neurological system structure. 42, 43
Weight loss Guidance having Potassium
Maintaining an adequate intake of dietary potassium (>90 mmol [3500 mg]/d) has been recommended for the primary prevention of hypertension by the JNC 7.13 The Institute of Medicine has recommended a sodium intake <65 mmol/d (3.8 g/d) and an increase in potassium to 120 mmol/d. 44 In 2006, the American Heart Association issued new guidelines suggesting an increase in potassium intake to 120 mmol/d (4.7 g/d), which is the level provided in the DASH diets in which all food is supplied. 14 The Canadian Hypertension Society recommends that the daily dietary intake of potassium should be ?60 mmol, since this intake has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke-related mortality. 45, 46 The most recent European Society of Hypertension guidelines also support an increased potassium intake based on the DASH diet. 18 In addition, the 2003 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension statement recommends a diet high in fruits and vegetables, a reduction of dietary sodium intake, and increased dietary potassium intake for reducing the incidence of hypertension. 16 Some sources of high-potassium, low-sodium foods are listed in Table III. 47